OHCHR Summary of ROK–March 25, 2008

12월 2nd, 2010 | Posted by admin in (i) Submissions to the UN | 1. Documents from Minbyun | 2. Documents from other NGOs | 4. UN reports on Republic of Korea

A/HRC/WG.6/2/KOR/3

25 March 2008

Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragragh 15 (C) of the annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1

Republic of Korea

I. BACKGROUND AND FRAMEWORK
A. Scope of international obligations
1. In a joint submission, Lawyers for a Democratic Society, People’s Solidarity for
Participatory Democracy, Korean Women’s Association United and Korean Progressive
Network Jinbonet in association with other non-governmental organizations (MINBYUNPSPD-
KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs) noted that the Government has not defined its position
on withdrawing its reservations on a number of provisions of the core human rights treaties.
Moreover, the State party did not ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention against
Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OP-CAT) as well
as the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and
Members of Their Families (ICRMW).

 

B. Constitutional and legislative framework
2. The National Human Rights Commission of Korea (NHRCK) indicated that under the
Constitution, the international human rights instruments acceded and ratified by the
Government have the same legal effect as the domestic legislation. However, according to the
NHRCK, international human rights law is still not widely known to the public, and the
Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches do not possess an in-depth understanding of their
legal obligations to implement international human rights law. Recently, the Judicial and the
Legislative branches have begun to refer to international human rights law.2 NHRCK
recommended developing national mechanisms for the Legislative and Judicial branches to
participate in the implementation of international instruments and to find effective ways to
disseminate these instruments.3
3. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs pointed out that only “citizens”
(rather than “non-citizens”) are protected by the Constitution. It also differentiates civil rights
from social rights where the state has wide discretion and denies the indivisibility of these two
rights. While the Constitution states that international law shall have “the same effect as
domestic law”, the binding power of international human rights law has been denied in
reality, according to MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs.4
 

C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure
4. The NHRCK was established in 2001, after a three year consultation period with a
wide range of sectors and actors in Korean society, as indicated by the Asian Legal Resource
Centre (ALRC).5 It is accredited with ‘A status’ vis-à-vis the International Coordinating
Committee of national human rights institutions.6 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other
NGOs noted that the NHRCK has made recommendations on major policies, laws and
ordinances and contributed to human rights improvements in detention facilities among
others. However, according to MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs, the
NHRCK has been passive in addressing violations in relation to economic, social and cultural
rights. Moreover, the Government has minimized, distorted or disregarded the
recommendations rendered by the Commission, thus hindering overall improvement in human
rights situation. 7
5. In a joint submission, the Korean Women’s Association United, the Korea Women’s
Hotline, the Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in Korea, the Korea Sexual Violence
Relief Centre, the Differently Abled Women United and other non-governmental
organizations (KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs) reported that a proposal
for the reorganization of government bodies was submitted to the National Assembly in
January 2008. The new administration wants to combine the Ministry of Gender Equality &
Family and the Ministry of Health & Welfare and to reduce the ministry responsible for
gender affairs to a toothless committee within another ministry, which is a huge setback for
Korean women’s human rights. The Ministry of Gender Equality was first established in 2001
and expanded the scope of its responsibility by taking over childcare matters in 2004, and
family policies in 2005.8
 

D. Policy measures
6. The NHRCK informed that in May 2007, the Government set up the National Action
Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (NAP). NHRCK noted however that
the NAP failed to address important issues regarding civil and political rights (such as the
recognition of political activities of civil servants and teachers, establishment of an
independent Military Prosecutor’s Office, abolishment of the National Security Act (NSA),
recognition of conscientious objection to military service, abolishment of the death penalty);
economic, social and cultural rights (improvements to industrial accident and unemployment
insurance policies, increase of the minimum legal wages, protection of the rights of patients,
prohibition of forced evictions without providing shelter, ratification of ILO Conventions on
the right to assembly); and other issues regarding socially marginalized people and minority
groups.9 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs also pointed out that the NAP has
not shown a clear stance on pressing human rights issues such as the National Security Act,
the death penalty and the rights of conscientious objectors to military service. The NAP also
neglects the cause of human rights protection for vulnerable people such as sexual minorities. 10
7. NHRCK recommended the Government to provide human rights education to law
enforcement officials including judges, prosecutors, public officials and social welfare
workers; to include and strengthen human rights education programs at all levels in a
comprehensive way and; to pass laws on human rights education.11

II. PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ON THE GROUND
A. Cooperation with human rights mechanisms
8. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs indicated that the Government has
neglected its obligation to implement and disseminate the concluding observations of treaty
monitoring bodies and made no sincere efforts to cooperate with civil society.12
 

B. Implementation of international human rights obligations1. Equality and non discrimination
9. The NHRCK noted that CEDAW has largely contributed to improvements of
women’s rights in the Republic of Korea. It influenced the process of revising the family law,
which led to the most important achievement in the four years, namely the abolishment of the
male-only family head system or hojuje. Still, according to the NHRCK, there remain many
problems: a wide salary gap between men and women, the low ratio of women in high
ranking positions, violence against women, sexual harassment and stereotypes on gender roles
including the conception that women should be the primary child caregivers. The NHRCK
recommended to proactively implement policies to change stereotypes of women and
intensify the punishment of perpetrators of violence against women.13 MINBYUN-PSPDA/
KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs noted that despite the abolishment of the “family head
system”, women are still experiencing political, economic, social and cultural discrimination
and some of the Government’s gender equality policies have been repealed contributing to a
lower awareness of women’s human rights in Korean society. 14
10. The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) informed
that South Korea’s policies on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ)
issues have been relatively progressive. The country prohibited employment discrimination
based on sexual orientation in 2001, and permitted people who had undergone gender
reassignment surgery to get personal documents reflecting their changed gender identity in
2006. But homophobia persists and LGBTQ activists continue to fight discrimination in
schools and in the military, as reported by IGLHRC. Many gay websites remain censored.15
IGLHRC also informed that in 2007, the Ministry of Justice drafted an anti-discrimination bill.
However, IGLHRC indicated that the bill, which was at that time pending in the Legislative
and Judiciary Committee, excluded seven protected categories, including sexual orientation. 16
11. Recently, rights of persons with disabilities have become a major social concern, as
highlighted by the NHRCK. The Government introduced improved policies and enacted
legislation, the Act on Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities in 2007. The NHRCK
also informed that the Government signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities but has not yet ratified it.17 KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs
indicated however, that policies and programs for persons with disabilities are gender-blind,
highlighting the importance of considering the unique needs of women. 18 MINBYUN-PSPDKWAU-
KPNJ and other NGOs also noted that although a bill regarding anti-discrimination
against persons with disabilities has been enacted, employment and income discrimination
regarding persons with disabilities still exists. The law ensuring the right to move for persons
with disabilities does not guarantee the right to access to roads and buildings and public
transportation. Furthermore, persons with disabilities are often institutionalized without their
consent, deprived of their personal relationships and cultural rights, and suffer from poor
housing, food conditions, forced labour and violent abuse within the facilities. According to
MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs, the Act should include the prohibition of
discrimination based on the forms of employment, and the Government should endeavour to
continuously monitor private sector as well as public sector to stop discrimination against
persons with disabilities. An organization regulating and supervising the welfare facilities
should be created and policies encouraging the self-reliance of persons with disabilities
should be promoted.19

2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
12. AI noted that 30 December 2007 marked the ten year anniversary since the
Government of the Republic of Korea last carried out any executions and therefore AI
considers the Republic of Korea ”abolitionist in practice”. AI reported that on 31 December
2007 the President commuted six death row prison inmates’ sentences to life imprisonment.
However, 58 prisoners remain on death row and certain crimes still carry the death penalty.
In 2007, two death sentences were passed. AI indicated that the Special Bill to Abolish the
Death Penalty has been before the Legislation and Judiciary Committee of the National
Assembly since 2005, and if not voted on before the end of the current parliamentary session,
the Special Bill will lapse in March 2008.20 AI recommended the Government to introduce a
formal moratorium as a step toward abolition of capital punishment and expedite passage into
law of the Special Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty in the National Assembly.21 The NHRCK
as well as MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs also recommended abolishing
the death penalty.22
13. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs reported that women’s right to
health and their right to choose have also been violated because of illegal abortion practices.23
14. The NHRCK reported that torture against persons in detention by investigative
agencies and other national bodies, including prisons, has remarkably decreased over the past
four years. However, it also indicated that human rights violations in particular in unregistered
facilities are reported to be serious; therefore effective supervisory measures are needed. 24
NHRCK also noted that human rights in protective facilities for the mentally-ill, the disabled,
the older and children need to be urgently improved.25
15. On the issue of domestic violence, KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other
NGOs reported that victims of domestic violence are not fully protected in the Republic of
Korea. This is because violence at home is culturally a matter of privacy; legal and
institutional safeguards for the victims are poor; the awareness is low in the police; the
aggressor is often allowed to stay at home while the victim is driven away under the existing
legal system; and public services focus on counselling for the victims rather than punishment
of the perpetrators, resulting in only 14.9% of prosecution among the arrested for domestic
violence in 2003. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs indicated that relevant
authorities must put more efforts on a campaign to raise awareness that domestic violence is a
crime; on appropriate injunction based on judging the danger the harmer puts on the victim;
and on guaranteeing the security of the victim. 26
16. The NHRCK reported that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the
rights of children, yet corporal punishment against children is still a particularly serious issue.
27 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs also reported that corporal punishment
is still prevalent in schools. 28 The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of
Children (GIEACPC) pointed out that corporal punishment is lawful at home. Children have
limited protection from violence under the Child Welfare Act, the Penal Code, the Special Act
on Punishment of Domestic Violence, the Act on Prevention of Domestic Violence and
Victim Protection, and the Constitution. 29 Corporal punishment is lawful in schools under
article 18(1) of the Act on Primary and Secondary Education and article 31(7) of the
Enforcement Decree of the Act. 30 GIEACPC further indicated that corporal punishment is
unlawful as a sentence for crime and as a disciplinary measure in penal institutions. There is
no explicit prohibition of corporal punishment in alternative care settings. GIEACPC strongly
recommended introducing legislation as a matter of urgency to prohibit corporal punishment
of children in all settings. 31
17. According to MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs, arbitrary detention
is prevalent in the military because a considerable number of military personnel have been
detained only by the order of their superiors without due process or judicial procedure, while
unconvicted prisoners are incarcerated in “substitute cells” (detention cells in the military) for
significant periods of time.32

3. Administration of justice and the rule of law
18. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs pointed out that with the revision
of the Criminal Procedure Act and the enactment of the Habeas Corpus Act, the rights of
detainees have been emphasized. However the Criminal Procedure Act reinforces the powers
of the police and the prosecutorial offices and the Habeas Corpus Act is not completely
effective due to the fact that it explicitly excludes non-citizens in immigration detention
facilities and fails to provide enough concrete means to ensure habeas corpus protections. 33
19. Although the efforts of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and other
institutions for transitional justice brought to light some past crimes, the wrongdoers’ refusal
to admit such crimes and the lack of punitive measures against them has rendered justice
ineffective, according to MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs.34

4. Right to privacy, marriage and family life
20. The NHRCK noted that with the development of information technology, there is a
growing risk of privacy invasion, from Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance and
eavesdropping, to abuse of personal database and bio-recognition technology.35 Similar
concerns were also raised by MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs. 36 NHRCK
recommended that efforts be made to protect the rights to privacy from excessive collection
and misuse of personal data. 37
21. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs raised the problems of
discrimination against untraditional families, indicating that the Health Family Act seems to
emphasize “Family” in its English title, but the Korean equivalent connotes “Healthy Home”,
dividing “healthy homes” and “unhealthy homes”. The act suggests that a traditional family
with a couple of man and woman and their children is healthy while other family types are
not. In particular, Article 3 stipulates that a family can be formed only by marriage, blood
relationship and adoption. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs indicated that
the law must be revised, because it excludes cohabitation, foster family, unwed parenthood or
other non-traditional families.38
22. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs indicated that civil law needs to
be amended to guarantee women’s equal property rights during marriage and at its
dissolution. Among Korean couples, 76.2% register their homes in the husband’s name, and
when couples file a divorce, only 20 to 40% of the wives receive some assets.39

5. Freedom of religion or belief, expression, association and peaceful assembly, and
right to participate in public and political life
23. The NHRCK noted that alternative military service programs for conscientious
objectors started to be considered. 40 On the same issue, MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ
raised concerns that conscientious objectors are still being sent to jail due to the fact that
conscientious objection is considered a felony. Conscientious objectors to army reserve
training are repeatedly punished and forced to pay fines.41 The NHRCK recommended that
the Government introduce policies for conscientious objectors in a prompt manner, as
recommended by UN human rights bodies.42
24. According to MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs, although the
Constitution expressly forbids a license system for assembly, the Government is operating a
de facto license system through issuing prior disapprovals under the related law which
obligates people to report assemblies and demonstrations beforehand. By surrounding areas
designated for assemblies and demonstrations with police squad buses, the police prevent people in general from approaching the areas and stifle any sort of communication, effectively
nullifying the right to assembly and demonstration.43 On the same issue, the NHRCK reports
that assemblies related to political issues were banned in advance for fear of traffic disruption
and probable violence.44
25. AI indicated that the National Security Act (NSA), in force since 1948, has been used
throughout the years to imprison people for engaging in peaceful political activities and for
publishing and distributing material deemed to “benefit” the enemy. The law provides long
sentences or even the death penalty for “anti-state” and “espionage” activities, but these terms
are not clearly defined.45 In this regard, AI highlighted the concluding observations of the
Human Rights Committee, on the third periodic report by the Republic of Korea, in which the
Committee noted that the restrictions placed on freedom of expression do not meet the
requirements of the Covenant and urged the State party, as a matter of urgency, to ensure
compatibility with requirements under the Covenant. AI also noted that similar earlier
recommendations by the Committee to amend the NSA in order to bring it into line with
international standards regarding clarity of criminal law have not been followed up.46 AI
recommended the Government to take concrete steps to abolish the NSA, or otherwise amend
it to bring it into line with international standards regarding clarity of criminal law, and
freedom of expression and association.47 The NHRCK also reported that the NSA has not
been abolished. 48
26. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs also informed that the NSA
arbitrarily makes it a criminal act to simply possess books or express views and is in reality
expanding in scope because of new legislations which strengthen surveillance and control of
communication, etc. Furthermore, the internet, which is the most important and widely used
open forum for exchanging diverse views and shaping public opinion, has been regulated by
law to prohibit the free expression of political views during the national elections.49
27. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs noted the low level of women’s
participation in political activities, recalling that the national assembly had had fewer than 10
women lawmakers until the 17th election, which produced seats for 43 women.50

6. Right to work and to just and favourable conditions of work
28. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs noted that “irregular workers” face
steep challenges in Korean society; they lack a social safety net and suffer from a disparity
between irregular workers and regular workers regarding income and labor conditions.
Irregular workers make up nearly 50 percentof the Korean workers, contributing to the
deepening of social polarization.51 The NHRCK also reported that irregular workers are
seriously suffering from discrimination in employment. The NHRCK informed that after the
Act on Protection for Non-regular Workers became effective in July 2007, some employers
started to fire irregular workers or to deny renewal of their contracts to avoid the possibility of
regularizing them.52
29. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs informed that although more
women want to work, only 54.7 percent of women aged between 15 and 64 actually found a
job in 2006. According to a survey of Korea National Statistical Office in August 2006,
among those working women, 67.6 percent have non-regular jobs and suffer from low-paying
insecure employment.53 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs raised similar
concerns, recommending that relevant laws to protect women’s labour rights and prohibit
discrimination should be enacted or revised.54 KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other
NGOs recommended that care workers and other unofficial workers be legally recognized as
workers.55
30. As reported by MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs, because of their
part-time employee status, juveniles also suffer from poor labour conditions where they are
withheld pay or underpaid but work for long hours. However, they also lack legislative
protection from this situation.56
31. The International Trade Unions Confederation (ITUC) informed that the law on the
Establishment and Operation of Public Officials Trade Unions went into effect on 28 January
2006. Civil servants are allowed to legally organise within administrative units predefined by
the law. However, there are a numerous categories of public officials who are still denied
union rights, including managers, human resources personnel, personnel dealing with trade
unions or industrial relations, and special public servants such as military, police, fire-fighters,
politically-appointed officials, and high level public officials. Civil servants have the right to
collective bargaining, but the subjects of negotiation are limited to matters concerning trade
unions, members’ pay and welfare and other working conditions. Hence, trade unions cannot
address other economic and social issues. ITUC reported that restrictions on collective action
prompted in 2006, strong opposition to the law by the Government Employees Union
(KGEU) affiliated to the Korean Confederation of Trade Unions (KTCU), and also
Government action against the KGEU that included the closure of over a hundred local union
offices.57 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs also raised concerns regarding
the rights of workers to collective action and strike. 58
32. ITUC also informed that in November 2006, the government passed through the
Parliament a series of revised labour laws that will make it easier to hire replacement workers
during strikes, and employ workers on temporary contracts. According to ITUC, in 2006,
employers continued to fire trade unionists with impunity, and frequently filed criminal
charges (and demands for huge amounts of compensation) for alleged ‘obstruction of
business’ resulting from regular union activities. ITUC indicated that police violence against
strikers continued in 2006, resulting in serious injuries for some and the death of one steel
worker. 59

7. Right to social security and to an adequate standard of living
33. According to the NHRCK, the understanding that the Government should guarantee
and fulfil individuals’ economic, social and cultural rights needs to be strengthened. For the
past four years, governmental policies to guarantee social rights have improved. However,
considering a wider gap between the rich and the poor, increasing job insecurity, and
unemployment, individuals’ social rights need to be more protected, as noted by the
NHRCK.60 Combined with the lack of a social safety net and the weakness of the current
social welfare system, economic divide and expansion of the poor are becoming more serious,
contributing to the tendency of poverty passing on from generation to generation, as
highlighted by the NHRCK.61 KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs also
raised concerns about the situation of families with single mothers who live below the poverty
line. 62 Similar concerns were also raised by the MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other
NGOs recommending to readjust the criteria for selecting eligible recipients of the Basic
Livelihood Security and the Minimum Cost of Living and; to establish a universal basic
pension system to cover those excluded from the present National Pension Scheme. 63
34. The NHRCK noted that the public health insurance program is being provided to all
individuals, and that the range of coverage is improving. However, the portion that
individuals pay needs to be reduced and insurance coverage requires to be further widened,
partly because economic burdens on patients with incurable diseases and long-term care needs
are ever increasing.64The NHRCK recommended the Government to provide measures to
guarantee the right to health by strengthening the social welfare system, guaranteeing rights to
shelter, and expanding medical assistance for the poor so that all individuals in the country
can enjoy adequate standards of living.65
35. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs reported that forced evictions
without prior warning are still prevalent, even during winter months or in the middle of the
night. There is a lack of an effective housing policy covering unregistered dwellings and
tenants. 2,550,000 houses including “vinyl houses”, “single rooms in lodgings” and
“basement rooms” are below the housing minimum standard, as specified by the Korean laws
and ordinances. Furthermore, hundreds of farmers in Pyongtaek have lost their homestead
because of the recent move by a foreign army base to that area.66 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAUKPNJ
and other NGOs indicated that the provisions facilitating forced evictions without prior
warning must be eliminated. Where there are either public projects or private construction
projects, the Government should make it mandatory to build rental houses or temporary
lodgings for those subject to forced evictions. They further recommended that affordable
housing be supplied and realistic criteria for eligible residents for public rental housing be
adopted.67
8. Right to education
36. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs indicated that compulsory primary
school education, although free in principle, is placing a significant financial burden on
families.68 As noted by NHRCK, middle school education is also compulsory, but parents still
need to pay for some portion of the education. Furthermore, according to MINBYUN-PSPDKWAU-
KPNJ and other NGOs, the continued emphasis on college entrance examinationcentred
policy is increasing the financial burden on families and is also causing a disparity in
the quality of education amongst Koreans belonging to different income tax brackets. 69
NCHRK recommended that measures be taken to guarantee the right to education for students
from low-income families.70 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs indicated that
the Government should adopt concrete measures to implement the recommendations of the
United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which mention the
alleviation of the financial education burden on the lower income tax bracket families by the
normalization of public educational systems, reforms for the excessive college entrance
examination competition, and the promotion of equal accessibility regarding higher
education.71
37. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs informed that it is still very
difficult for persons with disabilities to receive a proper education. In order to realistically
promote education amongst persons with disabilities, the Bill for the Special Education of
Persons with Disabilities, which advocates the establishment of schools and classes with
specialized teachers, as well as free compulsory pre-school education for infants with
disabilities, should be supported with an adequate budget and personnel. MINBYUN-PSPDKWAU-
KPNJ and other NGOs also recommended expanding compulsory education for
women with disabilities.72 Similar recommendations were made by KWAU-KWHWMHRCK-
DAWU and other NGOs.73

9. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers
38. The NHRCK stated that with the increase of migrants, the Government has developed
new policies and revised legislations in this area. However, according to the NHRCK,
discriminations that migrants are facing in their daily lives are serious. 74 AI indicated that as
far as they are aware, the Republic of Korea became the first labour-importing country in Asia
to seek to protect the rights of migrant workers when it introduced the Act concerning the
Employment Permit System for migrant workers (EPS Act) in August 2003. As of 2007, the
number of migrant workers was estimated at 502,082, of which at least 210,000 are irregular
migrant workers. 75 ITUC raised similar concerns and pointed out that migrant workers are
granted only a three years work permit, and are strictly forbidden from changing their
employer. 76 NHRCK recommended to enhance social awareness and, to revise legislation
and policies for better protection of the basic rights of migrants. 77
39. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs highlighted that women
constitute roughly one-third of all migrant workers and are particularly vulnerable to
exploitation, sexual harassment and violence. Lack of mandatory health insurance also affects
women migrant workers. Many women migrant workers who have experienced sexual
violence claim that they were threatened by their employer with forcible return to their home
country if they reported the incident 78 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs
made similar observations noting also that many migrant women who enter the country
through E-6 visas are exposed to prostitution and “sweatshop” labour or forced into the sex
industry. 79 KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs recommended amending
applicable laws to guarantee foreign women access to legal procedures regardless of legality
of their entry into Korea.80 MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs recommended
enacting relevant laws and regulations to ensure the human rights of immigrant foreign
spouses, etc., and enact a Trafficking Prevention Act to address both inbound and outbound
human trafficking.81 AI also recommended to take measures to protect women migrant
workers and ensure that they are not subjected to discriminatory practices and other abuses;
and to ensure that conditions at detention facilities are consistent with international law and
standards. 82
40. KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU and other NGOs also highlighted the situation of
around 120,000 women from third countries married to Korean men, who suffer from racial,
class and gender discrimination. In addition, 50,000 children of foreign wives and women
workers are deprived of schooling. 83
41. In addition, AI reported that since November 2003, the Government has implemented
a series of crack-downs leading to the arrest, detention and deportation of irregular migrant
workers. In this regard, AI also indicated that it has received persistent reports of poor
conditions in detention facilities for migrant workers and reports of abuse, and cruel, inhuman
or degrading treatment or punishment by security personnel against irregular migrant workers
held in detention while they await deportation. According to AI, poor conditions in detention
facilities became tragically evident in a fire at the Yeosu Detention Centre on 12 February
2007, which left 10 persons dead and 17 injured. When the fire broke out the fire alarm
system failed, the sprinkler system did not work, there were fewer guards on duty than
required in law, and the guard closest to respond to the fire did not possess a key to open the
cells of the detainees. The relatives of those killed in the fire were given compensation. The
other detainees were deported back to their countries of origin, many without compensation or
recourse to unpaid wages. 84 Similar concerns were also raised by MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAUKPNJ
and other NGOs. 85
42. ITUC reported that the Government continued to refuse to register the Migrant Trade
Union (MTU). When the MTU filed a legal appeal against the Government’s refusal, the
Seoul High Court ruled in February 2007, that migrant workers have the right to organise
unions, no matter their legal status in the country. 86 AI indicated that the Ministry of Labour
has reportedly appealed against this decision to the Supreme Court. 87 AI also reported that on
27 November 2007, three senior officials of the MTU were arrested and taken to a detention
centre for being “in an irregular or undocumented situation”, and in the morning of 13
December, they were deported in secret and without due process. 88 AI recommended to
protect the human rights of migrant workers, including by respecting their rights to form trade
unions, to be free from cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, ensuring that
they are not subject to arbitrary detention and expulsion without due process, and abuses of
their economic, social and cultural rights. 89
43. MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ and other NGOs reported that asylum seekers are
deprived of any legal means to maintain their living, while the process for refugee status
determination fails to provide fairness and transparency due to the lack of an independent
screening body and adequate translators. Even recognized refugees still face obstacles in fully
exercising their rights to be protected under the Convention and Protocol relating to the Status
of Refugees, except for the rights to stay and to be employed.90 NHRCK indicated that
refugee recognition procedures should be improved in line with international refugee law.91

III. ACHIEVEMENTS, BEST PRACTICES, CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS
44. NHRCK indicated that over the previous four years, the overall human rights situation
has improved, in particular, with regard to civil and political rights. Discrimination is now
recognized as an important human rights issue in society. However it also noted that while
socially marginalized people and minority groups attract more attention, a widening socioeconomic
gap between the rich and the poor has also diminished the enjoyment of social,
economic, cultural and other rights.92
45. The NHRCK also mentioned that as the percentage of elderly people in the country is
one of the fastest growing in the world, the protection of the rights of elderly people with
regard to social alienation, underemployment, poverty and medical care has emerged as a new
challenge.93

IV. KEY NATIONAL PRIORITIES, INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENTS
n/a

V. CAPACITY-BUILDING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
46. NHRCK indicated that the Government should develop capacity building and
technical assistance projects, cooperating with the NHRCK and civil society, as it has
voluntarily pledged upon its election to the Human Rights Council. The Government should
also consider how to incorporate a human rights perspective in its official development
assistance. 94
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Notes
1 The stakeholders listed below have contributed information for this summary; the full texts of all original
submissions are available at: www.ohchr.org. (One asterisk denotes a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council. Two asterisks denote a national human rights
institution with “A” status.)
Civil Society
AI Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008*
ALRC Asian Legal Resource Centre, Hong Kong, China, UPR submission, January 2008*
GIEACPC Global Initiative to End All of Corporal Punishment of Children, London, United
Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008
IGLHRC International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA
UPR submission, January 2008
ITUC International Trade Union Confederation, Brussels, Belgium, UPR submission,
January 2008*
KWAU-KWH-WMHRCK-DAWU Korean Women’s Association United (KWAU)*, Korea
Women’s Hotline (KWH), Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in Korea
(WMHRCK), Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre (KSVRC), Differently Abled
Women United (DAWU) and co-signed by Gwangu Jeonam Women’s Association
United, Gyeong-gi Women’s Associations United, Jeju Association for Women’s
Right, Jeju Women’s Association, Korea Association of Women Theologians, Korea
Women’s Studies Institute, Korean Women Workers Association, Pohang Women’s
Association, Taegu Kyungbuk Women’s ssociations United, The National
Association of Parents for Charm-Education, Women Making Peace, Seoul, Korea,
joint UPR submission, January 2008
MINBYUN-PSPD-KWAU-KPNJ MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society*, PSPDPeople’s
Solidarity for Participatory Democracy *, KWAU-Korean Women’s
Association United*, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonet* in association
with Buddhism Human Rights Committee, Civic Action for Social Justice,
Consolidation for Medical Consumer, Cultural Action, Differently Abled Women
United, Disability and Human Rights in Action, Establishment of the centre for
human rights in military, GONGGAM-Korean Public Interest Lawyers Group,
Gyeonggi Women’s Associations United, Intellectual Property Left (IPLeft), Jeju
Association for Women’s Rights, Jeju Women’s Association, Joint Committee with
Migrants in Korea, Korean Medical Action Groups for Health Rights (KFHR), Korea
Health and Medical Workers’ Union (KHMU), Korean Health Professionals for
Action (KHPA), Korea Association of Women Theologians, Korea Buddhist Order
Association Human Rights Committee, Korea Centre for City and Environment
Research, Korea Centre for United Nations Human Rights Policy (KOCUN), Korea
Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Korea Women’s Hotline, Korean Coalition for
Housing Rights, Korean Women Workers Association, Korean Womenlink, Korean
Public & Social Workers’ Union (KPSU), Korea Solidarity for Conscientious
Objection (KSCO), MigrantsTrade Union, MINKAHYUP Human Rights Group,
National Council of Crumbly Man, Pohang Women’s Association, SARANGBANG
Group for Human Rights, Taegu-Kyungbuk Women’s Association United, The
National Association of Parents for Charm-Education, Women Migrant Human
Rights Centre, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008
National Human Rights Institution
NHRCK National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR
submission, January 2007 **
2 National Human Rights Commission of Korea, p.1.
3 National Human Rights Commission of Korea, p.5.
4 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
5 Asian Legal Resource Centre, Hong Kong, China, UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
6 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.1.
7 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
8 The Korean Women’s Association United, the Korea Women’s Hotline, the Women Migrant Human Rights
Centre in Korea, the Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre , the Differently Abled Women United and other
NGOs, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
9 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007,
p.1. For examples of policies not included in the NAP, see also National Human Rights Commission of the
Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.6.
10 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
11 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.5.
12 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
13 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.4.
14 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
15 International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
16 International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
17 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.4.
18 The Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre
in Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United and other NGOs, Seoul,
Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
19 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
20 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, p.1. See also National
Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
21 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, p.3.
22 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007,
p.5; MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
23 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
24 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
25 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
26 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, pp.2-3.
27 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007,
p.4. See also MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory
Democracy , KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand
other NGOs, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
28 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
29 Global Initiative to End All of Corporal Punishment of Children, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission,
January 2008, p.2.
30 Global Initiative to End All of Corporal Punishment of Children, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission,
January 2008, p.2.
31 Global Initiative to End All of Corporal Punishment of Children, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission,
January 2008, p.1.
32 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
33 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
34 MINBYUN MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory
Democracy , KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand
other NGOs, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
35 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
36 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
37 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
38 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.3. See also MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s
Solidarity for Participatory Democracy , KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean
Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
39 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United and other NGOs, Seoul, Korea,
joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.3.
40 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
41 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
42 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.5.
43 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
44 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
45 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp.1-2.
46 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp.1-2.
47 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, p. 4. See also National
Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.5.
48 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
49 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, pp.2-3.
50 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, pp.2-3.
51 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
52 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007,
p.3. See also MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory
Democracy , KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand
other NGOs, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
53 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, pp.1-2.
54 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
55 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.2.
56 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
57 International Trade Union Confederation, Brussels, Belgium, UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
58 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
59 International Trade Union Confederation, Brussels, Belgium, UPR submission, January 2008, p.1.
60 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.3.
61 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
62 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.3.
63 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.3.
64 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.3.
65 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
66 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, pp.3-4.
67 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
68 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
69 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
70 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.3.
71 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
72 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.5.
73 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.4.
74 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.4.
75 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, p.2.
76 International Trade Union Confederation, Brussels, Belgium, UPR submission, January 2008, p.4.
77 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.4.
78 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, p.2. See also Korean
Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in Korea, Korea
Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January
2008, pp.4-5.
79 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, pp.4-5.
80 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.5.
81 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, pp.4-5.
82 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp. 3-4.
83 Korean Women’s Association United, Korea Women’s Hotline, Women Migrant Human Rights Centre in
Korea, Korea Sexual Violence Relief Centre, Differently Abled Women United, Seoul, Korea, joint UPR
submission, January 2008, p.5.
84 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp. 2-3.
85 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.3.
86 International Trade Union Confederation, Brussels, Belgium, UPR submission, January 2008, p.8. See also
Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp.2-3.
87 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp. 2-3.
88 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp. 2-3.
89 Amnesty International, London, United Kingdom, UPR submission, January 2008, pp. 3-4.
90 MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society, PSPD-People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy ,
KWAU-Korean Women’s Association United, KPNJ-Korean Progressive Network Jinbonetand other NGOs,
Seoul, Korea, joint UPR submission, January 2008, p.3.
91 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.4.
92 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.2.
93 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.1.
94 National Human Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea, Seoul, Korea, UPR submission, January 2007, p.5.

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